Program Description

  • This program generates a 4-voice canon that is electronically scored for four General MIDI (GM) instruments.
  • The pitches of the leader are randomly generated.
  • The three follower voices are all strictly imitated at the unison.
  • The time delay intervals for the three follower voices were inspired by the Fibonacci sequence: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, etc.; i.e., a pipe object delays the leader’s pitches by 3000, 5000, and 8000 ms., respectively, to create a 4-voice canon.
  • Texturally, the artistic goal was to create a dense soundscape using a strict canonic algorithm.
  • Tempo and Pulse:
    • The tempo is 120 b.p.m.
    • The pulse is an isochronous 1/16 note pulse (tempo 120 1 16). The duration of each pulse is thus 250 ms.
  • The duration of each generated note is 1000 ms (makenote 64 1000). This duration was chosen to allow four-note groupings to overlap and thus create random harmonies derived from the current scale.
  • The scale is set to Pentatonic via the ScaleMap2 sub patcher which is discussed in detail in the Winkler Scale Tutorial (Winkler 1998).


Winkler, Todd. 1998. Composing Interactive Music: Techniques and Ideas Using Max. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p. 197-199.


Updated: 10/21/23